The first formal system for rewarding acts
of individual gallantry by the nation's fighting men was established by General George Washington on August 7, 1782. Designed
to recognize "any singularly meritorious action," the award consisted of a purple cloth heart. Records show that only three
persons received the ward: Sergeant Elijah Churchill, Sergeant William Brown, and Sergeant Daniel Bissel Jr.
The Badge of Military Merit, as it was called,
fell into oblivion until 1932, when General Douglas MacArthur, then Army Chief of Staff, pressed for its revival. Officially
reinstituted on February 22, 1932, the now familiar Purple Heart was at first an Army award, given to those who had been wounded
in World War I or who possessed a Meritorious Service Citation Certificate. In 1943, the order was amended to include personnel
of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Coverage was eventually extended to include all services and "any civilian national"
wounded while serving with the Armed Forces.
Although the Badge of Military Merit fell
into disuse after the Revolutionary War, the idea of a decoration for individual gallantry remained through the early 1800s.
In 1847, after the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, a "certificate of merit" was established for any soldier who distinguished
himself in action. No medal went with the honor. After the Mexican-American War, the award was discontinued, which meant there
was no military award with which to recognize the nation's fighting men.
Early in the Civil War, a medal for individual
valor was proposed to General-in-Chief of the Army Winfield Scott. But Scott felt medals smacked of European affectation and
killed the idea.
The medal found support in the Navy, however,
where it was felt recognition of courage in strife was needed. Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy medal
of valor, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on December 21, 1861. The medal was "to be bestowed upon such petty
officers, seamen, landsmen, and Marines as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry and other seamanlike qualities
during the present war."
Shortly after this, a resolution similar in
wording was introduced on behalf of the Army. Signed into law July 12, 1862, the measure provided for awarding a medal of
honor "to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and
other soldierlike qualities, during the present insurrection."
Although it was created for the Civil War,
Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration in 1863.
Almost 3,400 men and one woman have received
the award for heroic actions in the nation's battles since that time.